≲ 231 MIN

  • 32.5cm tall, borosilicate glass  

    For a church candle of 5/8" diameter and 6" tall.
    Mouth-blown borosilicate in Slovenia, without the use of moulds.
    Height 32cm
    Weight 0.35 kg

    1 X twisted brush with tip6 X 6" long church candles6 X 9" long church candles6 X lighting tapers, wooden gift box.

    The timepiece allows the operator to determine when the flame will be extinguished by adjusting the amount of water poured into the holder. As the candle gets shorter its bottom end rises upwards to a point where a constraint is no longer effective, and the candle falls over onto its side, extinguishing itself in the water. The Bauhaus tells us that ‘less is more’. Here, for more burn time, add less water.

    Named after its maximum burn time of 231 minutes (which is three hours and fifty one minutes), the ≲ 231 MIN is formed from the highest-quality borosilicate glass, mouth-blown on a lathe using the same processes that create chemistry apparatus.

    Candle waste is minimised and there is a reduced fire risk as a result of the self-extinguishing feature of the innovation.
    Its nature lends itself well to dinner parties. Should a guest remain at an event longer than is desirable, a self-extinguishing candle may provide a tactful clue that the event is over.

    'An impressively simple, physical principle translated into a beautiful, decorative object.'
    Jury statement - German Design Award 2021

    Studio photographs by John R Ward.
    Interior photographs by Beth Davis, styling by Studio Gabrielle.
    UK Patent Application Number: 2011755.2
    Ideally, when operating the candleholder use soft or demineralised water to avoid scale deposits at the water surface level. Clean soon after use to avoid scale building up from water evaporation. You can use warm or hot water, with washing up liquid if required. It is important to ensure that no tiny candle remnants are left. A spec of wax left inside the neck can cause the candle to jam, preventing it from floating upwards causing the candle to be extinguished early as the top burns down to meet the water surface level. So please inspect the interior glass surface very carefully for specs of wax and use the brush (included) inside the neck, if necessary. Towel dry and let any remaining water inside drain, by placing the holder upside-down. For more stubborn scale deposits inside the neck, we recommend the use of a little vinegar. Hot water should be used to remove wax from glass holders.
    Borosilicate objects are free blown on a lathe by a lamp worker, using the same processes used to blow scientific laboratory glassware (chemistry apparatus).
    Borosilicate glass is more resistant to thermal shock than other glass. Borosilicate is referred to as 'hard glass' and has a higher melting point (approximately 1650 degrees Celsius) than 'soft glass'.
    More about making here.

    Check that there are no tiny remnants of wax inside the holder. Fill the holder with water (ideally soft or demineralised water) to above the point where the stem meets the bowl.
    Like this, it is set for the maximum burn time of 231 minutes. For a shorter burn time, add more water. (More water raises the candle up within the glass, so it has a head start and will release itself earlier.) One inch of water height above the stem reduces one inch of candle below the stem. Each inch of candle length below the part where the stem meets the bowl will give approximately 38.5 minutes of illumination. Check that the candle is smooth and that there are no small lumps on the body of the candle, which may cause it to jam inside the holder. Insert the bottom end of the candle into the narrow part of the glass and let the candle sink. Have a small bowl of water on standby. Please light the candle with a taper (included). The taper may be most easily extinguished in the nearby bowl of water.


    1 X twisted brush with tip,
    6 X 6" long church candles,
    6 X 9" long church candles,
    6 X lighting tapers. (Please use both ends of lighting tapers and trim with wick trimmers or similar (nail clippers may be used to do the job).)
    The correct candle for the 231 min is 6" tall and 5/8" in diameter (included). We recommend candles from Charles Farris, which are also available from us. A 9" candle (also included) may be used if a burn time of longer than 3 hours and fifty one minutes is required.
    We suggest the use of a taper makes lighting easier, particularly when relighting shorter lengths of candle. Tapers are also available from both Charles Farris or Rokos.

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